वैमानिक शास्त्र (Vimaan Shastra-Ancient Indian Aeroplane Technology Chapter-5.1)

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FIFTH CHAPTER-5.1



Yantraadhikaranam: Yantras: Machinery.


Maharshi Bharadwaaja:
☞ "Athha Upayantraani." Sootra 1. "The Mechanical Contrivances."
Bodhaananda Vritti:

Having described the forces or energies required for the various functions of the vimaana, now the mechanisms necessary for these activities are described.

"Kriyaa-saara" says:

"As stated by the eminent Bharadwaaja in "Yantrasarvasva", the mechanical equipments necessary for the vimaana are 32. They are vishwakriyaadarsa or universal reflecting mirror, shaktyaakarshana yantra or force absorbing machine, pariveshakriyaayantra or halo-producing machine, angopasamhara yantra or machine for folding up or contracting its parts, vistrutakriyaa yantra, or expanding yantra, vyroopyadarpana or fantastic mirror, padmachakra-mukha, kuntinee shakti yantra and pushpinee shakti yantra, pinjula mirror, naalapanchaka and guhaa-garbhabhidha yantras, tamo-yantra or darkness spreading machine, pancha vaataskandhanaala, roudree mirror, vaataskandha naalakcelaka, vidyudyantra or electric generator, and shabdakendra mukha, vidyuddwaadashaka, praanakundalinee, shaktyudgama, vakraprasaarana, and shaktipanjara keelaka, shirah- keelaka and shabdaakarshana, pataprasaaranayantra, dishaampati yantra, pattikaabhraka yantra, suryashaktyapakarshana yantra or collector of solar energy, apasmaaradhooma prasaarana or ejector of poisonous fumes, stambhana yantra, and vyshwaanara naalayantra."

They are thus described in "yantrasarvasva," chapter 7, by the illustrious Maharshi Bharadwaaja.


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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:
Bodhaananda Vritti:
 ☞ "Athopayantraani." Sootra 1. "Subsidiary Yantras."


Prepare a square or circular base of 9 inches width with wood and glass, mark its centre, and from about an inch and half thereof draw lines to the edge in the 8 directions, fix 2 hinges in each of the lines in order to open and shut. In the centre erect a 6 inch pivot and four tubes, made of vishvodara metal, equipped with hinges and bands of iron, copper, brass or lead, and attach to the pegs in the lines in the several directions. The whole is to be covered.

Prepare a mirror of perfect finish and fix it to the danda or pivot. At the base of the pivot an electric yantra should be fixed. Crystal or glass beads should be fixed at the base, middle, and end of the pivot or by its side. The circular or goblet shaped mirror for attracting solar rays should be fixed at the foot of the pivot. To the west of it the image- reflector should be placed. Its operation is as follows:

First the pivot or pole should be stretched by moving the keelee or switch. The observation mirror should be fixed at its base. A vessel with mercury should be fixed at its bottom. In it a crystal bead with hole should be placed. Through the hole in the chemically purified bead, sensitive wires should be passed and attached to the end beads

in various directions. At the middle of the pole, mustard cleaned solar mirror should be fixed. At the foot of the pole a vessel should be placed with liquid ruchaka salt. A crystal should be fixed in it with hinge and wiring. In the bottom centre should be placed a goblet-like circular mirror for attracting solar rays. To the west of it a reflecting mechanism should be placed. To the east of the liquid salt vessel, the electric generator should be placed and the wiring of the crystal attached to it. The current from both the yantras should be passed to the crystal in the liquid ruchaka salt vessel. Eight parts of sun-power in the solar reflector and 12 parts of electric power should be passed through
the crystal into the mercury and on to the universal reflecting mirror. And then that mirror should be focussed in the direction of the region which has to be photographed. The  image which appears in the facing lens will then be reflected

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through the crystal in the liquid salt solution. The picture which will appear in the mirror will be true to life, and enable the pilot to realise the conditions of the concerned region, and he can take appropriate action to ward off danger and inflict damage on the enemy.

Next Shaktyaakarshana yantra:

"Yantra sarvasva" says, "Owing to the etherial waves and raging winds of the upper regions in accordance with die seasons, evil forces are generated which tend to destroy the vimaana. The Shaktyaakarshana yantra in the vimaana is meant to subdue those forces and render them harmless."

Narayana also says:

"Three fierce forces arise from the fierce winds and ethereal waves, and cruse destruction of the plane. The shalayaakarshana yantra by its superior force subdues them and ensures safety of the vimaana."

Its construction is as follows:

The base is to be 3 feet long and 2 feet wide, and made of krouncha metal. A 12 inch tall  3 inch wide pole or peg made of 27th kind of glass should be fixed in its middle. To the east of it, as also to the west, 3 centres should be marked on each side. To the north and south also 2 centres should be marked on each side. At each centre screw-bolts should be fixed. Then tubes made of the 107th glass, with cleaned wiring should be fixed. A goblet shaped 15 inch sized glass vessel should be fixed on the base of the central peg. A 1 foot circular glass ball with three holes should be fixed in the main centre. A triangular shaped 1 foot sized mirror made of Aadarsha glass should be fixed on the 3rd kendra. Two circular rods made of magnetic metal and copper should be fixed on the glass ball so as to cause friction when they revolve. To the west of it a globular ball made of vaatapaa glass with a wide open mouth should be fixed. Then a vessel made of shaktipaa glass, narrow  at bottom, round in the middle, with narrow neck, and open mouth with 5 beaks should  be fixed on the middle bolt. Similarly on the end bolt should be placed a vessel with sulphuric acid (bhraajaswad-draavaka). On the pegs on southern side 3 interlocked  wheels should be fixed. On the north side liquefied mixture of load-stone, mercury, mica, and serpent-slough should be placed. And crystals should be placed at the requisite

centres.

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"Maniratnaakara" says that the shaktyaakarshana yantra should be equipped with 6 crystals known as Bhaaradwaaja, Sanjanika, Sourrya, Pingalaka, Shaktipanjaraka, and Pancha-jyotirgarbha.

The same work mentions where the crystals are to be located. The sourrya mani is to be placed in the vessel at the foot of the central pole, Sanjanika mani should be fixed at the middle of the triangular wall. Pingalaka mani is to be fixed in the wide mouthed glass globe. Bhaaradwaaja mani should be fixed in the opening in the naala-danda. Pancha- jyotirgarbha mani should be fixed in the sulphuric acid vessel, and Shakti-panjaraka mani should be placed in the mixture of magnet, mercury, mica, and serpent-slough. All the five crystals should be equipped with wires passing through glass tubes.

Wires should be passed from the centre in all directions. Then the triple wheels should be set in revolving motion, which will cause the two glass balls inside the glass case, to turn with increasing speed rubbing each other, the resulting friction generating a 100 degree power. That power should be conveyed through wires to the sanjanika mani. Mingling with the force existing therein, that force issues out and should be transmitted through wires to the sourrya mani. On contact of the power therein the force will split into 5 streams. Each of the five power streams should be connected with one of the manis, Bhaaradwaja, Sourrya, Pingala, Pancha-jyotirmani, and Shakti-panjara mani. Mingling with the force in each mani, they form five forces, which are named by Atri maharshi as Raja, Mourtvica, Chundeera, Shoonya, and Garbha-vishodara. These should be passed by wires to the sulphuric acid vessel. They then form 3 forces, named marthanda, rowhinee, and bhadra. Marthanda shakti should be passed into the load-stone, mercury, mica, and serpent slough liquids. The resulting current should then be passed through wires to the wide mouthed glass globular vessel. Solar force pregnant with etherial force should be passed into the Naaladanda, and thence to the vessel with marthanda shakti. The power of the solar rays entering that vessel mingles with the marthanda shakti inside, and the resultant force has to be focussed towards the adverse force of the etherial current which will be thereby nullified and the vimaana will be protected.

Then the Rohinee shakti should be passed through wires into the vessel containing the fivefold load stone, mercury, mica, serpent slough acid,

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and the resulting current passed to the Bhrajasvaddraavaka or luminous acid vessel at the foot of the central pole. Then from the air-route collect the wind-force impregnated solar rays and pass them also into the above vessel. Mingling with the rowhinee shakti therein  a super-force will be created which should be passed through the northern pivot, into the rowhinee power vessel. The united force should then he directed against the malefic wind force in the air-route, so that it will tame the evil force and protect the Vimaana.

Then from the suragha tube Bhadraa shakti should be passed into five fold acid vessel. The resulting force should be passed through wired tubes to the foot of the triangular

wall, and thence to the pivot on the southern side. The force should then be directed against the evil roudree Force in the air-route. Neutralising that third destructive force in the sky, the vimaana will be allowed smooth passage in the sky.

The Parivesha-kriya yantra:

According to Yantra-sarvasva, by manipulating the five forces a halo is formed around the vimaana, and by drawing the solar rays into contact with it, the rays will speed the aeroplane along the rekhaamaarga or safety line. This is achieved by the operation of the above said yantra.

Narayanacharya also says:

"The mechanism which will manipulate the five forces so as to create a halo round the plane, and attracting the solar rays and contacting them with the plane, make them draw the plane smoothly and speedily along the air route without swerving into danger, is called parivesha-kriyaa yantra or halo-forming mechanism."

Soudaaminee kalaa says, "The forces of ksha, ja, la, bha, and ha, when united attract solar rays. "

According to "Gopatha-kaarika," the forces in shireesha or Indra or lightning, clouds, earth, stars; and sky, are indicated by the letters ksha, ja, la, bha, and ha. By combining those live forces a halo, like that around the solar orb, will be created, and it will have the power or attracting solar rays.

Kriyaa-saara says Shireesha has 2 parts, Clouds have 8 parts, Earth has 5, Stars have 7, and Aakaasha or Sky or Ether has 10. The Aakarshana

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yantra should attract these forces and unify them. Then through the mirror above the vimaana attract solar rays, and apply them to the unified forces,

A halo will be created, and that halo, in combination with the solar rays, will draw the plane through a safe course like a bird held by a string, Its formation is thus explained in Yantra-sarvasva:

"Athha Yantraangaani"

We now deal with the parts of the yantra:

A foot-plate: 23 main centres to be marked on it, with lines connecting the centres. Similar number of revolving screws, wired tubes, pole with three wheels, eight liquids, eight crystals, eight liquid containers, mirror to attract the forces of shireesha, cloud, earth, stars, and aakaasha, five electric mechanism, five barks of trees, copper coated wires, five leathers, hollow screws, revolving screw with wire, vessels for storing the energies, vessel for mixing the energies, smoke-spreading yantra, air-fanning yantra, halo-creating tube made of milky-leather, solar ray attracting mirror tube, tube for collecting the solar rays reflected in the mirror at the top portion of the vimaana, crest-

crystal, screw for connecting the solar rays to the vimaana. These are the 23 parts of halo producing yantra.

Its construction is now explained: A wooden base 23 feet square, made of black pippala or holy fig tee. 23 centres enclosed in a case made of 35th type of glass. 23 lines to the centres. Revolving keys to be fixed at the 23 centres. Wired glass tubes should connect one centre with another. A glass pole made of the 37th type of glass, 5 feet long, 1 foot thick in the middle, 18 inches thick at the neck, with a 10 fact wide top, should be fixed as the central pillar, with 3 revolving wheels. Eight acids should be placed in the eight directions from the north-east side. Their names are rubnaka, kraantaja, taarkshya, naaga, gowree, vishandhaya, khadyota and jwalana.

The rubnaka acid is to be placed in the north-east centre, kraantaja in the centre, naaga at the southern centre, gowree at the south-west corner, vishandhaya in the western centre, khadyota at the north-west centre, and jwalana at the northern centre in 8 glass vessels.

The names of the vessels are also given by Shaarikaanaatha: shila, abhra, paara, vyrinchika, vaaluka, asuragranthika, sphutika, and pancha-mrith,

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[paragraph continues] The 8 vessels are made out of these 8 elements by process defined in "Darpana-prakarana."

The rubnaka acid should be filled in shila-darpana vessel; kaarshnya-acid in abhrakaadarsha; kraantaja acid in paaraadarsha vessel; naagadraava in vyrinchi-aadarsha vessel; khadyota acid in sphutikaadarsha; gowree acid should be filled in vaalukaadarsha vessel; vishandhaya acid should be filled in suragrathika vessel; and jwalana acid in panchamrid vessel.

In the 8 acid filled vessels 8 crystals are to be inserted. As mentioned in "Maniprakarana" their names are dhoomaasya, ghanagarbha, shalyaaka, shaarika, tushaasya, somaka, shankha, and amshupa.

Having mentioned their names, we now explain their disposal. Dhoomaasya mani is to be placed in rubna acid vessel. Ghanagarbha mani should be placed in kraantaja acid vessel. Shalyaaka in kaarshni acid vessel. Shaarika in naaga acid vessel. Tushaasya is to be placed in gowree acid, Shankha in jwalana acid; Somaka in vishandhaya acid; and Amshupa mani is to be placed in khadyota acid vessel.

In front of these manis, eight shaktyaakarshana, or energy-imbibing mirrors are to be fixed. Their names according to Bharadwaja are taaraasya, pavanaasya, dhoomaasya, vaarunaasya, jalagarbha, agnimitra, chaayaasya, and bhanukantaka. Their location is as follows: Six inches in front of dhoomasya mani the taaraasya mirror with an iron rod with a switch attached to it should be fixed. Pavanaasya mirror should be fixed similarly in front of ghanagarbha mani. Dhoomaasya mirror should be fixed 6 inches in front of shalyaaka mani. Vaarunaasya mirror should be fixed in front of shaarikaa mani. Jalagarbha mirror should be fixed in front of somaka mani. Agnimitra mirror should be fixed in front of tushaasya mani. Chhayaasya mirror should be fixed in front of shankha

mani. And Bhanukantaka mirror should be fixed in front of amshupaa mani.

Then in the western centre should be installed the electric generator with switch. Copper- coated wires covered with live kinds of skins, should be spread all-round, proceeding from the shakti-yantra or electric generator. The names of the five skins, according to "Kriyaa-saara," are rhinoceros, tortoise, dog, rat or hare, and crocodile.

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According to "Twangnirnaya-adhikaara," or chapter on skins, for seats in vimaanas, and, for containing acids, and covering wires, five kinds of skins are mentioned by the  learned; skins of rhinoceros, tortoise, dog, rat or hare, and crocodile. These five are to be used for the purposes of cove-ring, and seating. Wires covered with these skins are good conductors of electricity. The bhraamanee keela, or central revolving pole should be fixed in the centre so that when it revolves all the other pivotal centres also revolve. Eight energy storing vessels should be placed in the 9th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 13th, 15th 16th and 11th centres. The sammelana vessel or coordinating vessel should be placed in the front  of the 23rd centre. To the south of it at the 21st centre the wind blowing mechanism should be fixed.

The Vaata-prasaarana or wind-blowing yantra is thus described: In the central pivot there are to be 5 wheels which will turn with 100 linka revolutions by contact with electric wires: in the east and west two bellows on pivots: two air-containers with 3 mouths or openings: 6 wheels which prevent air-motion: two tubes with switches which will cause spreading: wheels with keys that will induce speed, or full speed, slow, very slow or stop, shaped like a tortoise, having two bharas or parts?, and having a wheel fixed at the top. That is a vaata-prasaarana yantra.

The dhooma-prasaarana yantra or smoke-spreading yantra is as follows: with three openings, 5 satchels inside, 8 wheels, three keelakas or switches, encircled by electric tube, provided with smoke-generating mani or crystal, and equipped with 5 acids, with two churning wheels with keys, with two smoke containers attached to the bellows tube, with smoke-spreading yantra, and it is to be fixed at the 20th centre.

The parivesha-kriyaa naala or halo-creating tube is thus explained. Out of 5 milks from 5 kinds of milk trees, 6 barks of trees, and 2 valkalas (hemp, jute), cloth is fashioned. And that cloth should be used in preparing the parivesha-kriya or halo-forming tube.

It is stated in "Ksheeree-pata kalpa":

In the realm of milk-yielding trees, dugdha-pranaalee, patapaadapa, payodharee, panchavatee, and virinchi are the 5 most suitable for manufacture of milk-cloth useful for vimaanas.

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"Patapradeepikaa" also says, "Among the milk-trees, the best for producing milk-cloth are the following five, payodharee, panchavatee, viranchi, patapaadapa and dugdhapranaalika.

The six bark-trees are godaakanda, kurangaka-niryaasa, aandolikaaviyatsaara, lavika, prishatka, and kshmaamala. In conjunction with the milk from milk-trees these barks produce cloth which is flawless, strong, and soft.

For the two valkalas, according to "Agatatva-nirnaya" out of 5000 kinds of valkalas from shaarikaa to panchamukhee, the two named simhikaa and panchaanga are said to be excellent for producing the milk-cloth required for vimaanas.

The composition of the cloth is as follows:

Dudgdhapranaalika milk 8 parts, 10 parts of the milk juice of the patavriksha, 7 parts of payodaree or cocoanut milk, 18 parts of the milk of the 5 vata or ficus trees, and 12 parts of virancha tree.

The ambikaa-shatka composition is 10 parts of godaa-kanda, 17 parts of gum from kurangaka, 15 parts of aandolikaa viyatsaara, 12 parts lavika, 20 parts of prishatka, and 15 parts of kshmaamala.

The two jute cloth proportions are given in "Shana-nirnaya chandrikaa," as 28 parts of simhikaa jute, and 18 parts of panchaangavalkala jute.

These proportions of 5 ksheera or milk, 6 ambika or barks, and 2 valkalas or jutes, should be mixed together and unified, and boiled in paakaadhaana yantra and churned a number of times, and processing with acids 12 times, should be filled in pata-garbha kriya or cloth-making yantra, and milk-cloth of excellent quality obtained. The parivesha kriyaa- tube made out of this cloth will, by manipulation of the concerned switch, expel smoke from the vimaana, and by quick advancing and reverse revolutions of the wheel will spread the smoke all round so as to envelope the vimaana by means of the smoke-screen.

The Kiranaakarsha-Naala:

16 parts of the 305th variety of glass, 5 parts of kaancholikaabharana, 6 parts of nagakesara or merua ferrea,--aletris hyacinthoides, 4 parts of

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couries, sunflower, and Indian spikenard, 8 parts of pure borax, iron dross, onion juice, cuscus grass powder, ruby glass, the three varieties of salt-petre, sand, essence of suranjikaa, viranchi flour, essence of black-mica, essence of bael fruit, and juice of  flower buds, these twelve ingredients, in the proportion of 27, 5, 7, 3, 8, 7, 3, 11, 8, and 12, are to be filled in the frog-shaped crucible, and placed in the frog-shaped furnace, and melted with 300 degrees of heat with the help of two-winged bellows. The resulting  liquid is to be poured into the darpana yantra or glass-making machine, so as to produce the kiranaakarshana or rays-attracting yantra.

The tube made of this glass should be fixed at the top of the concerned yantra.

Next- the pratibimba-arka-kiranaakarshana naala, or tube for attracting the reflection of the solar says:

According to "Naalikaa-nirnaya," the essence of squash gourd, juice of momardica, 2 parts, of the salt of the two wheeled root vegetable, 3 parts of salt of simhamoola, 122nd type of glass, essence of white mica, jelly stone, borax, root of Bengal-madder, thorn at the root of bamboo, lead, mercury, these 15 ingredients are to be mixed in the proportion of 5, 12, 4, 3, 7, 3, 11, 4, 9, 12, 20, 18, 12, 5, 20. The mixture should be filled in the crucible known as samavargika, and heated in the furnace of the same name, and heated to the degree of 315, with the aid of bellows called suraghaa. The resulting liquid should be poured into the mirror--making machine. The resulting product will be a fine bimbaarka-kiranaadarsha, or reflected solar ray attracting mirror. This should be fixed in the central portion of the vimaana and in the 10th kendra, with five circled screws.

Now we deal with the crest crystal of the vimaana. The crest-crystals are of 103 kinds. They are named in "Mani-kalpa-pradeepika" as belonging to the 12th class of 32 groups of crystals. Their names are shankara, shaantaka, kharva, bhaaskara, Mandana, kalaantaka, deeptaka, nandaka, chakrakantha, panchanetra, Rajamukha, Raakaasya, kaalabhyrava, chintamani, koushika, chitraka, bhaskara, uduraaja, viraaja, kalpaka, kaamikodbhava, panchasheershna, paarvanika, panchaaksha, paaribhadraka, isheeka, kaashabhrit, kaala, kanjaasya, kowtika, kalaakara, kaarmika, vishaghna, panchapaavaka, symhikeya, roudramukha, manjeera, dimbhika, pingala, karnika,

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krodha, kravyaada, kaala-kowlika, vinaayaka, vishwamukha, paavakaasya, kapaalaka, vijaya, viplava, praanajanghika, kaarmukha, prithu, shinjeera, shibika, chanda, jambaala, kutilormika, jrimbhaka, shaakamitra, vishalya, kanka-gowrabha, suragha, suryamitra, shashaka, shaakala, shaktyaakara, shaambhavika, shibika, shuka, bherunda, mundaka, kaarshnya, puruhoota, puranjaya, jambaalika, sharngika, jambeera, ghanavarshmaka, chanchvaaka, chaapaka, ananga, pishanga, vaarshika. Raajaraaja, naagamukha, sudhaakara, vibhakara, trinetra, bhoorjaka, kumuda, koorma, kaarmuka, kapila, granthika, paashadhara, damaruga, ravi, munjaka, bhadraka.

These are the 103 crystals suitable for being fixed as crest-jewels of the vimaana. One of them is to be fitted to the central pinnacle at the top of the vimaana, and the wires from  the electric dynamo should be connected to it, so that it might be supplied with power. On the upper side should be attached wires for collecting solar rays, so that the two forces might act in combination.

The switch-gear for connecting the vimaana with the solar energy is explained in "Brihath-kaandika." Sandhaana-keelakaas are of 25 kinds. Their names are pinjuleeka, keeranaka, dimbhaka, paarvateeyaka, kachchapa, gaaruda, uddanda, shaktipa, govidaaraka, pavanaasya, panchavaktra, vajraka, kankana, ahirbudhnya, kundalika, naakula, oornanaabhika, trimukha, saptasheershanya, panchaavartha, paraavatha, aavarta, naabhika, oordhvaasya, shilaavarta.

Amongst these the 9th, govidaaraka, is best suited to connect the vimaana with the solar beams for safe navigation. This is Pariveshakriyaayantra.

Next Angopasamhaara yantra:

During the passage of sun and other planets in the 12 houses of the zodiac, owing to the varying speeds of their progressive and retrogressive motions, conflicting forces are generated in the zodiacal regions, and their collisions will let loose floods of fierce forces which will reduce to ashes the parts of the plane which get involved with them. The pilot should get warned by the ushna-pramaapaka yantra, or heat-measuring instrument, and quickly fold the concerned parts and ensure their safety.

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It is described in "Yantrasarvasva" as follows:

Purifying the metal sumrileeka mixed with manjeera, a pedestal should be cast, 12 feet long, 18 inches thick, and shaped as a square or circle. Then mixing the magnetic stone and dimbika, after purifying them with acids, cast a pole 3 feet thick and 30 feet tall, with springs, as in an umbrella, at the foot, in the middle and at the upper end, and fix it in the centre of the pedestal. Rods made of mixed metal like umbrella rods, provided with 5 springs, should connect the springs in the pole with the several limb mechanisms of the vimaana. Two revolving wheel springs with two tubes with 3 faces and 3 wheeled springs should be fixed at the bottom of the pole, near the spring. Above there should be fixed an oiling tube which will keep all the springs well-oiled. When a particular limb of the plane has to be contracted the spring at the foot of the pole should be turned so as to induce the spring of the part to operate so as to contract or open up the part as need be so that the danger to the part will be prevented. By the operation of the angopasamhaara yantra, any part of the plane can be folded up to avoid danger and opened out subsequently.

Vistritaasyaa kriyaa yantra or wide-opening mechanism:

When the various powers, subterranean, eight cardinal points, earth, cloud, electricity, and oceanic, consemble in padma-mukha, a power called vishambharee is generated. It breaks through the earth, emitting great heat, mounts with a 300 linka speed to the upper sky regions, and reaching the aerial routes, envelopes the vimaana, and affects the personnel inside causing grave physical disabilities, and paralysing the brain. For the purpose of curbing it and nullifying it, the vistritaasyakriyaa yantra is to be installed in the vimaana.

According to "Yantrasarvasva," a foot-plate, of an arm's length, and 22 inches thick, and round-shaped, is to be made of the wood of the sacred peepul tree. A pole of an arm's thickness, and 32 inches high, is to be fixed in the middle of it. Reversible wheeled double-switches should be fixed along its height, connecting each of the sectional mechanisms in the vimaana, through tubes reaching to the bhastrikaa naala or bellows tube attached to the mechanisms. At the foot of the pole three revolving wheels, and at its back the contracting switches, have to be fixed

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First peetha or footplate, then pillar, then revolving springs, jointure tubes, two-wheeled keelakas, two-winged bellows, three wheel moving mechanism, contracting mechanism, are eight constituent parts of this machine.

First the triple wheeled mechanism should be switched on. That will set the double wheels in motion. That will make all the springs attached to the pillar begin to operate. The two winged bellows attached to the double-wheels will open up. Wind will rush out and force through all the sandhi-naalas or jointure tubes. That will set the bellows in the central operating; thereby the bellows of the sectional mechanisms will come into play, and air will flow out in a flood, and taking hold of the vishambharaa shakti expel it to the aerial regions where it will get lost. Thus the personnel inside the vimaana will be saved from disabilities and restored to normalcy.

Vyroopya mirror: Says "Yantrasarvasva",

When enemy planes come intent on destroying the vimaana, the vyroopya mirror is intended to frustrate them. Its parts are, peetha or stand, central switch-gear, electric pole, smoke tube, betel-nut oil, triple-wheeled spring, three satchels, smoke light, and contraction tube.

The peetha or seat should be 2 feet wide and 2 feet tall, and circular, and made of bael  tree wood. 12 centres are to be marked therein. At each centre revolving joints should be fixed. Jyotistambha or electric pole, 24 inches thick and 24 inches tall and made of vyroopya darpana glass, is to be fixed in the centre. In front of it the electric machine should be fixed in the 2nd kendra. In the 3rd kendra should be fixed the turning smoke tubes with winding wires. The oil vessel should be fixed in the 5th kendra. The 3   satchels, with 3 mouths, one foot high and made of milk-leather should be fixed in the 6th 7th, 8th and 9th kendras, up to the smoke tube. In the tenth kendra should be fixed the smoke-extinguishing tube mechanism, and the light-extinguishing tube in the eleventh kendra. The winding wire tube should be fixed in the 12th kendra.

The operation of the mechanism is as follows:

Drawing the electrical energy from the dynamo, it must be applied to the triple-wheeled mechanism. That will be set in motion. The wires

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proceeding from there will convey the power to all the other mechanisms and set them in motion. Kendras 3, 4, and 5, will become active. When kendra, 9 is switched on the koshas attached thereto will become active. From the 5th kendra the current should be passed to the oil vessel. The oil will then convert itself into poisonous .gas. The gas should be filled in the 3 satchels and the 3 tubes. The fumes from two of the tubes should then be discharged towards the enemy planes. They will encircle the enemy planes and envelope them with a smoke-screen. Then the betelnut oil should be lighted, and fluxed  in the jyoti stamhha or light-pillar. The light within the pillar will suffuse it with red glow like a china rose; and pervade the sky. Then the electric glow should be applied to that glow. The resulting glow will be multi-coloured like a rain-bow, with violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red. Then the poison-fumes from the 3rd tube should be drawn through the air tube, and let into the multicolour-glowing light-pillar. The fume will burst into light, and then should be passed through tube into the vyroopya-darpana. The light glow will pervade the mirror and attain 3000 degree intensity, causing a blinding glare and paralising the enemy. Then the gas in the three satchels should be projected with 25

linka speed towards the smoke screen enveloping the enemy. Then the smoke from the tubes should be projected with 28 linka speed into that screen. Then the smoke filled glow will flood over the enemy personnel and affect their body joints, organs, mind, vision, and induce inertness, and make them all fall down senseless. Then the pilot could change his air-route and proceed forward safely.

Then Padmachakra mukha yantra:

According to "Yantra sarvasva," its parts are, peetha or pedestal, pillar, tubular pole, electric wiring, glass lotus petals, lotus formation process, places where the lotuses are to be located, wind inhaling and leather-bellows mechanism, contracting and expanding switches, triple-wheel fixing arrangement, air flow outlets, folding up mechanism. These are the 12 parts of the padmachakra mukha yantra.

The peetha or seat should be made of the wood of pippala or the holy fig tree, 8 feet and 3 feet high, and square or circular. Mark 12 fixing centres on it. From the central pillar draw lines towards the 12 spots. The central pole, two tubular posts on either side of it, electric wire in eastern centre,

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lotus petals in the north, formation of lotus in the northern and southern centres, fixing of the lotuses from the north-east to the south-east corner, to the east air-filling bellows. In the north west corner the contracting switch, and the expansion switch in the south-west corner, triple-wheel revolving mechanism on the eastern side, air flow outlets underneath each lotus. To its south, the contraction switch.

These are the 12 parts to be fixed in the 12 centres. The production of the parts is as follows:

The central pivot should be made of abhra-mrid-darpana, or mica-sand glass. According to "Darpana-prakarana"--

5 parts of rambhasatva (plantain stem?), 8 of manjoosha (madder root?), 5 parts of kaanta (ayaskaanta? sooryakaanta?), 8 parts of kravyaada (jataamaamsi), 3 parts of aadhaka essence, 7 parts of tortoise shell essence, 18 of bhalyatvak, 3 essence of kudmala or flower buds, 8 of bamboo salt, 3 of hooves, 28 parts of shoonya-mrid or mica ash, 4 of trivikrama kshaara, 2 of conch, 5 of mercury, 8 of salts, 1 of creepers, 3 of silver, 3 of eye-ointment, these 18 ingredients, purified, filled in crucible, placed in varaatakunda furnace and boiled to 200 degrees, and slowly filled in darpana yantra, will yield an excellent abhra-mrid darpana.

Two tubular poles of the size of an arm, made of this glass, should be placed on either side of the pivot. From the central pole electrical wiring should be connected to the 12 centres. In the centre of the switch tubes should be placed the lotus petals, and 150 finely made glass lotus petals should be spread on the northern side electric wires.

The petals are to be made, according to Lalla, by mixing 15 parts of the mica glass, with 4 parts of sourika salt, duly mixed and finely powdered and melted in pattikaa machine,

when like onion-skin layers, petals will take shape. Then the wires attached to the petals should be brought together from the several centres, and attached to the lotus forming mechanism. By turning the concerned wheel the petals will move towards the centre and form a lotus. Each petal will then become a tube, and by their juggling each

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tube will form 2 petals. The air-attracting mechanism should be placed in front and set to work. With a shrieking noise the air will be sucked in by each tube and the petals will shoot the air far into the outer air.

It is said in "sandhaana-patala--"

The scattering of a blizzard which may obstruct the progress of the vimaana is only possible by means of the padma-sandhaana and not otherwise. Therefore the spots where the lotuses are to be inserted are now indicated. On the eastern side from the north east to the south east the lotuses are to be erected in seven places in close order. Beneath the seven lotuses should be fixed seven leathern bellows capable of deep draughts of air. On the north west corner should be fixed the double-wheeled contracting mechanism.

According to "Kriyaa saara," by turning the main wheel in right motion, and the upper wheel in reverse motion at full speed, the yantra will suffer contraction. This machine is composed of 6 wheels spread out, 5 naalaas or tubes, 12 wires and 12 openings, and 12 keys which will cause contraction of the 12 parts, with widened mouth at the upper and lower parts, and provided with 2 revolving keys. By placing such a contracting machine in the north-west corner, the machine could be contracted when desired.

Now we shall deal with the expanding mechanism. It is round like a water pot, with 12 wheels and mouths, having 12 tubes with rods inside with 12 revolving springs for ascending motion, and with a central spring for filling with air. With such a mechanism the yantra can be made to stretch its parts. This should be fixed in the south west corner.

Then at the eastern face the triple-wheeled revolving spring, called "bhraamanee- keelaka", should be fixed.

It has 3 ivory wheels, consists of 3 poles, wooden top shaped like shimshumaara, with wheels with spring on top. By its operation the several parts of the yantra are set in motion, and by the operation of the concerned springs, the yantra will expand. Therefore the 3 wheeled bhraamanee mechanism should be properly fixed at the eastern kendra with 5 bolts.

Underneath the lotuses air flow routes should be provided. There should be openings 12 inches wide, 2 inches high, be leather-covered, made

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of pippala wood, with 7 tubes for the flow of wind. Seven such tubes should be fixed beneath the seven lotuses, and provided with keys.

In the southern centre the contracting mechanism or upasamhaara keela, with 12 outlets,

should be fixed.

Owing to the seasonal changes forces will generate in the joints of the outer space, and combining with the oceanic forces will reach the realm of air and cause a commotion which will spread out with fierce force into the farthest air pockets, and let loose typhoons which reach the vimaana, and produce a dusty excrescence which will induce chicken-pox-like skin eruptions on the pilots and other occupants, and also break up the vimaana. In order to suck up that foul wind-flow, and expel it out of the vimaana, the padma-patra-mukha yantra is prescribed.