वैमानिक शास्त्र (Vimaan Shastra-Ancient Indian Aeroplane Technology Chapter-6.2)

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Chapter 6.1

Sundaala is described by Lallachaarya:

The sundaala should be installed. for using the oil fumes and steam fumes for the motion of the vimaana. There are. varieties of ksheera vrikshaas or milk-trees according to shaastraas. Vata or banyans, manjoosha or madder root, maatanga or citron?, panchashaakhee (five branched), shikhaavalee (crested), taamra sheershnee (copper- crested), brihatkumbhee (big bellied), mahishee, ksheeravallaree, shona parnee (crimson- leaved), vajramukhee, and ksheerinee (milky). From these the ooze or milk should be collected, and in the proportion of 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 8, 7, 4, 7, 30, 12, filled in a vessel. Then granthi metal, naaga or lead, vajra, bambhaarika, vynateya, kanduru, kudapa, and kundalotpala, these in equal parts should be filled in the vessel in equal proportion to the milk contents, and boiled with 92 degree heat. Then the molten liquid should be filled in the milk-cloth machine, and churned. When cooled and put through the levelling  machine, it will yield a strong, soft, cool, heat proof, and uncuttable ash-coloured cloth sheet.

This cloth should be boiled in rouhinee taila or oil of black hellebore for 3 yaamaas or 9 hours, and then washed with water. Then it should be boiled in atasee or linseed oil as before. Then it should be kept in ajaa-mootra or goat's urine for one day and kept in the sun. Then it should be dried and painted with kanakaanjana paint and dried, Then the cloth will glow with a golden hue. With this cloth should be made the shundaala or elephant trunk, 12 feet high, 1 foot round, and with pipe-like opening inside.

Two mechanisms for rolling it and unrolling it should be properly attached to it. By the rolling switch the shundaala will coil round like a snake and remain on the floor. By the unrolling switch it will uncoil and stand erect like a raised arm. From the fume generating yantra connecting links to the shundaala should be provided for the fumes to pass through it to the outside air. And to attract outside air into the sundaala a pump-like arrangement should be provided as in an inflator.

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Three switches should be provided as in the water tapping yantra. By revolution of its wheel the fumes will go out through the shundaala and 82 linka of fresh air will come in.
The direction in which the fumes will emerge from the shundaala will be the direction of the course of the vimaana. The 3 wheels in the shundaala will cause the vimaana to wheel around or make ascent, or to drop height.

At the foot of each dhoomodgama yantra 2 shundaalas should be duly fixed. And on the 4 sides of the dhoomaprasaarana-naala-stambha 4 shundaalas should be erected.

In order to protect against the intense heat from fire and sun inside and outside the vimaana, it should be provided a covering made of the 6th type of Ooshmapaa loha or heat-proof metal. At the top and bottom and on the sides keys should be provided for the movement of the fumes. 40 such dhoomodgama yantras should be properly fixed in the selected spots of the peetha with screw fittings. The vimaana will be enabled to fly smoothly by so doing.

Says Yantra Sarvasva: ELECTRIC DYNAMO

There are 32 kinds of yantras for generating electricity, such as by friction, by heating, by waterfall, by combination, by solar rays, etc. Out of these, saamyojaka or production by combination is the one most suitable for vimaanas. Its manufacture is explained by Sage Agastya in Shaktitantra:

The peetha or foot-plate should be made of saamyojaka metal, 35 feet in diametre. 5 spots should be marked in it in a circle, 5 feet in diametre, with a spot in the centre. Vessels should be prepared for each kendra, 4 feet wide, 2 feet high, shaped like a pot. On each a cylindrical pipe 1 foot wide and 1 foot high, should be fixed. The top of the cylinder should be 4 feet wide and round.

Then get a Jyotirmukha or flame-faced lion's skin, duly cleaned, add salt, and placing in the vessel containing spike-grass acid, boil for 5 yaamas or 15 hours. Then wash it with cold water. Then take

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oils from the seeds of jyothirmukhee, or staff-tree, momordica charantia, and pot herb, in the proportion of 3, 7, and 16, and mix them in a vessel, add 1/64 part of salt. The skin should be immersed in this oil and kept for 24 days in solar heat. It will get a scarlet sheen. The skin should be cut to the size of the top opening of the vessel cylinder, with 5 openings in it. Cover the cylinder with the skin with bolts. All the 5 vessels should be similarly covered, and placed in the 5 selected centres on the peetha. Then 16 drona measures of asses' urine, 16 linka measures of mined charcoal, 3 linkas of salt, 2 linkas of snake-poison, and 2 linkas of copper, should be filled in the vessel on the eastern side.

Then in the vessel on the western side, 7 vidyudgama mani or load-stone, 13 praana- kshaara or ammonium chloride, 22 hare-dung, should be filled. and made into a decoction. Two parts of camel urine should be mixed with one part of the above. Then 50 linkas of rhinoceros bones, 30 linkas of sulphur, and 16 linkas of tamarind tree salt, and 28 linkas of steel should be added to that. And 117 tatin-mitra manis should be placed in
the centre of the vessel.

Next the following materials should be filled in the northern vessel:

Eleven parts of oil of apaamaarga or achyranthus aspera seeds, 32 parts of oil seeds of sarpaasya or mesua ferrea, 40 parts of ayaskaantha or oil of steel, in 83 parts of elephant's urine, all these to be put in the northern vessel and mixed together properly. Then add mercury, symhika salt, and paarvanika or bamboo rice, 30, 20, and 25 palas respectively, or 120, 80, and 100 tolas. Sun-crystal of the 800th type, mentioned in Maniprakarana, cleaned in oil, should be put in the vessel.

Next in the vessel on the southern side, put in grandhika draavaka or long-pepper decoction, panchamukhee draavaka, and shveta-punja or white liquorice decoctions, in proportion of 12, 21, and 16, and mix together, add cows' urine 5 parts more than the above liquids, 47 parts of jyotirmayookha root, 28 linkas of kaanta metal, 28th and 10th kind of kudupa 32 parts. 92 jyotirmanis purified in milk should be placed in it, according to Chaakraayani. This is the southern vessel.

Then in the central vessel electric current should be stored. That vessel should be made of chapala-graahaka metal only.

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Chapala-graahaka metal is explained in Lohatantra:

Quick-lime, marble stone, lac, sowraashtra earth, glass, root of the elephant trunk tree, bark of karkata tree, cowries, cubeb pepper gum, in the proportion of 8, 11, 7, 27, 8, 5, 3, 7, and 12 parts of tankana or borax, to be filled in urana crucible, placed in kundodara furnace, and with 3 faced bellows, boiled to 427 degrees, will yield, when poured into the cooler and cooled, chapalagraahaka metal.

The electricity storage vessel should be manufactured as follows: A foot-plate 5 feet long, 8 feet high, 1 foot thick, half-moon shaped, should be made of above metal. The vessel should be shaped like a big pot, with a cylindrical top. It should have a glass covering. 2 pipes 3 feet wide 6 feet high should be fixed in the vessel in the northern and southern sides. They should also be covered with glass. Between the two pipes two wheels with hinges and switches etc. should be fixed. When the switches are put on or turned, causing the two wheels to revolve, electricity will flow from the bottom of the 4 vessels into the two pipes and ascend. Two tubes, 6 inches long, should be prepared, wound round with deer skin, tied with silk thread or silk cloth. The Vajramukhee copper wires cleaned with acids, should be passed through each tube, and taken to the two pipes in the vessel and be fixed with glass cups. 8 palas or 32 tolas of mercury should be placed in the energy container vessel. 391st vidyunmukha mani, wound round with copper wiring with mixing switch, should also be inserted. Then taking the wires in the pipes they should be connected with the wiring of the mani through the kaachakanku hole. In each of the vessels, excepting the middle one, two churning rods should be fixed in the centre. The rods should be made of steel or shakti skandha. They should be 3 feet high and 1 foot thick. Keys should be fixed in them for obverse and reverse churning. To the east of the churning machine wheels should be fixed for raising and lowering. An 8 inches high
naala or tube should be fixed. On either side of it should be fixed 5 wheels of 5 inches height, like the wheel of the water lifting machine. 2 inches wide flat pattis made of  shakti skandha metal should be passed from the wheels inside the Aavritta-naala to the keys of the wheels in the churning yantra. Then revolving wheels should be attached to the naalas or tubes of the stambha or big pipe. By the turning of these keys, it will operate like the turning of the churning

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rod back and forth as in churning curds by drawing and relaxing the rope ends.

Then according to Darpana-shaastra, four vessels, shaped like the bamboo cylinder used on the pounding mortar, should he made out of ghrinyaakarshana glass or solar-heat absorbing glass and fixed on the mouth of the 4 vessels.

The vessel is described by Lallaacharya: 8 inches wide and 1 foot high, and then 2 feet wide and 6 feet high, and at the top a 6 feet wide mouth.

25 palas or 100 tolas of bamboo salt, should be put in it. Then amsupaa mani or solar-ray crystal of the 325th kind, duly cleaned in acid, should be put in it with rice salt. Then rice hay should be spread over it tightly, and facing the sun. The rays from all sides are imbibed by them, and will enter the vessel daily to 105 degrees' strength. If kept thus in the sun for 12 days, 1080 linkas of electric power will be accumulated in each vessel.

In order to store this power in the storage vessel six inches long steel tubes should  connect the bottom of the vessel with the storage vessel. They should be covered by deer skin and wound round with silk cloth or yarn. Two copper wires should be passed through the tubes and connected to the storage vessel. 100 palas of mercury should be put in the vessel. And a 391th type of sun crystal duly wired should be placed in the mercury, and the wires coming from the tubes should be connected to it.

The well-oiled keys in the 4 vessels should be revolved with speed, to 200 degrees heat, when the liquids in the vessels will be boiled by the heat rays. Then the keys should be hastened up to 2000 degrees. By the liquids in each vessel 800 linkas of electricity will be generated. The power should be conveyed by the wires in the kaanta metal tubes to the storage vessel. The crystal will absorb and fill the vessel with the power. In front of the storage vessel a five feet long, 3 feet high circular vessel should be installed. It should be covered all round with the bark of vaari-vriksha.

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Always water will be flowing in it. So instead of water, water skin is indicated. It will give the vessel the effect of water-immersion. Then in that vessel glass cups containing the decoction of shikhaavalee or lead-wort? or achyranthes aspera?, 18 parts of ayaskaanta or loadstone? or steel acid?, and 12 parts of vajrachumbaka acid, should be placed. Then power should be drawn from the storage vessel through the wires inside the glass-covered tube, and 4 wires with glass wheel key be let into the acid vessels. Then from the bottom of the vessels 2 wires fitted with keys should be taken in a right circle to the front of the smoke-outlet stambha or pipe, and attached to the wires inside the bhujyu
metal tube. The wires should also be connected to the keys of the electric friction crystals in the dhoomodgama stambha or pillar, as also to the key in the stambha. Thereby electricity will be spread in all parts of the vimaana. Therefore the vidyud-yantra or electrical machine should be installed in the left side of the vimaana.

Vaata-prasaarana Yantra

Air Spreading Machine.

Kriyaasaara says:
In order to enable the vimaana to ascend, vaataprasaarana yantra is necessary. Therefore it is now being described. It should be made out of vaatamitra metal only. Lohatantra describes vaatamitra loha. 13 parts of rasaanjanika or extract of Indian
berbery, 27 parts of prabhanjana, and 37 parts of paraankusha, should be filled in sarpaasya or serpent-faced crucible, placed in chakramukha furnace, and with the aid of vaaranaasya bhastrika or bellows, heated to 216 degrees. Then filled in the sameekarana yantra or churner, and next poured out and cooled, it will yield vaatamitra loha, or air- companion metal.

First the foot plate, then the naala-stambha or tubular pole, air pumping wheel with keys, air attracting bellows-like mechanism, and mechanism for contracting and expanding the mouth, out-flow and inflow tubes with keys, covering for the yantras, wind pipes, vaatodgama

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pipe, bhastrikonmukha, vaatapoorakeelakas, vaata nirasana pankha keelaakas, or air- expelling fan keys, these 12 are the organs of the yantra.

The Peetha or foot plate.

The peetha should be 6 feet long, 1 foot thick, square or round, with two spots on the northern and southern side of it for erecting three-wheeled tubular poles.

The 3 wheeled naala stambha is described in "Yaana bindu":

Three feet long and 8 feet high tubular poles should be fixed on 2 sides of the peetha or foot-plate. At the foot and the middle and the top of the pole three openings should be provided for fixing 3 wheels.

In the pole should be fixed tubes, one foot wide and 2 feet long, for drawing in air, and wheels 1 foot wide with teeth as in hack-saw, revolving both ways, be fitted to the tubes. The vaata-pooraka or air-filling naala should be fixed in the middle of the wheel. By turning the fly wheel, the wheel will turn, making the naala move up and down sucking in air. The air pumping wheel keys should be thus fixed in the two poles. The keys at the mouth of the bellows should be connected to these keys.

Bellows' mouth mechanism

Taking pig-skin, duly cleaning it with putrajeevi or wild olive oil, boil it for 3 days, wash it with clean water. Smear it with gajadantika oil frequently exposing to sun for 5 days, and fashion out of it a 6 foot bellows, three feet wide at bottom, 4 feet wide in the middle, and 1 foot wide at the mouth. Two keys working conversely to each other should be fixed at the mouth. A stick should be inserted between them. The two keys should be capable  of being put into quick motion, or left at rest. By turning the keelakas the piston rod is moved, and from its speed, the bellows' mouth also will start in motion, and also the vaataakarshana naala. By putting the naala at the mouth of the bhastrika or bellows, quick air entry from inside the mouth will occur. By starting all the keelakaas in all the centres there will be airflow in the three wheel tubular stambhas. By turning the

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keelakas with 20 heat-degree force, in the naala stambhas air will rush out with 100 shaker speed. From the bellows' mouth also air will blow with 2000 prenkhana or shaker speed. And these air flows will speed the motion of the vimaana. Therefore in front of the vaatodgama yantra 12 such yantras should be installed on the four sides, 3 on each side. And aavarana or covering should be provided for them according to their measurements. And 12 naala stambhas, 3 feet wide and 12 feet high, should be prepared, and fixed on  the top covering of the yantras, for the air to flow out. From each stambha air will blow with 2600 prenkhana speed. The yantras are individually prescribed so that some may  rest when not required. The high flight will be helped by these machines. Having thus described the individual sources of air supply for the vimaana, we shall now describe the Brihat-stambha or main mast.

It should be 4 feet wide and 30 feet high, and called vaatodgama naala stambha. It should be erected centrally amidst all the yantras. The bhastrikonmukha yantras should be fixed at the foot of the stambha so that the air flows from the yantras could pass into the stambha. The wind-naalaas or pipes should be connected to the stambha-moola fitted  with keys. At the opening of the naala-stambha at the top on the 8 inch wide opening a vessel one foot high and 3 feet wide should be fixed. The wind from the stambha or tunnel will pass out through it in wavy billows. The dhoomodgama yantra or smoke pipe should, be provided with triple keys or fixtures, for the expulsion of smoke. and blowing in of air. By operating those keelakas the supply of smoke and air could be controlled according to need. Wind expelling fan wheels should be put in, so that by their quick motion the motion of the vimaana could be facilitated.


Covering of the Vimaana

Covering the dhoomodgama yantras and kudyaas or side walls, as in the case of the Shakuna Vimaana, the covering of the Sundara vimaana should be done by raajaloha only. The covering should accommodate the number of partitions or booths required as in Shakuna Vimaana. The location of the 32 component yantras should be determined.
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[paragraph continues] In the centre of the booths for locating the four-faced heat machinery, a thirty feet square area should be set apart.. There the four-faced heat yantra should be erected.

Says Yantrasarvasva:

The chaatur-mukha owshnya yantra should be made out of kundodara metal only. Kundodara metal is defined in Lohasarvasva.

Soma, Kanchuka, and shundaala metals in the proportion of 30, 45, and 20 to be taken, cleaned and filled in padma crucible, placed in chhatramukha furnace, and with vaasukee bellows heated to 716 degrees, aa-netraanta, and poured into the yantra for cooling. A blue, fine, light, alloy, capable of bearing 2000 degree heat, and which cannot be blasted even by shataghnee and sahasraghnee canons, and very cold, is kundodara alloy. With this alloy the owshnyaka yantra should be fashioned.

Yantraangas or parts of the Machine.

Peetha or foot-plate, smoke container kunda or vessel, water container, fire oven, turret covering, covering of water container, twin wheels for projecting and restraining smoke, window rods, padmachakras or wheels, aavritta chakra keela, heat indicator,  speedometer, time clock, ravaprasaarana keelaka naala or sound transmitting instrument, antardandaaghaata naala, air-bellows, long sundaala pipes, twin copper pipes, air dividing wheel keys, these 18 parts constitute the ooshmyaka yantra.

The peetha, tortoise-shaped, should be 25 feet long and wide. At peethaadi or starting end should be fixed the agni-kosha or fire place, the water vessel in the middle, and the smoke-container should be fixed at the other end.

The 3 koshaas are explained by Budila:

Ravi or copper, manchoulika, and tigma in equal parts should be mixed with kundodara metal, and be made into 3 inches thick pattika or flats. One pattika should be fixed on the peetha. In the fire place, kendra on the peetha a 4 feet long 6 feet high fire-place should be made. For stocking coal or wooden billets, a sort of walled table should be formed. Next a triangular fire-place should be formed,

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with rods at the bottom for the ashes to fall down. In between the 2 parts the flat sheet should be fixed, fitted with keelakas or hinges for moving the peetha as desired. Three keelakas should be fixed at the fire place, one to fan the flames and straighten them, one to moderate or stimulate the flames, and one to distribute the flames evenly. A naala or pipe should be fixed on the fire kosa. Another pipe with wiring, is to be fixed at the end of the fire-kosa pattika with a smoke transmitting pipe which will convey the smoke of the fire-place to the jalakosa or water container. From the fire kosa to the covering of the water kosa water pipes should be adjusted. In the water kosa enclosure the heat will rise to 5000 linkas in these tubes. The heated water will then give out hot smoke.
The size of the jalakosa or water container is 8 feet. Three triple-wheeled naalas or pipes should be fixed in the jalakosa: one to restrain the heated smoke from the water, one to amass the smoke, and one to lead the smoke into the dhoomakosa or smoke-container.  The Dhoomakosa should be 6 feet wide and 4 feet high. In order to fill the kosha with smoke, necessary fittings should be provided. Above the jalakosa a dome-like covering should be erected. It should be provided with fittings, for folding up and opening out. To the front of the smoke container, two pattikaa wheels with holes should be fixed in order to let out the smoke or to restrain it. In order to operate the wheels two bhraamanee keelakaas or revolving switches should be provided. To the east of the Dhooma-kunda, 8 inches long window bars should be fixed with one inch spacings. Then in front of the yantra, in the middle, at top, at bottom, and on both sides, twin padmachakra keelakas should be fixed for spreading the smoke or restraining it. For storing the wood or coal a hole 11 feet wide should be arranged. The door covering it should be provided with needful fittings. To the north and south of the keelaka the heat-measure and speedometer should be fixed. Above them the timepiece. To the south, a telephonic device called ravaprasaarana or sound ringer, which will give alarm with 1212 sound wave speed, and which gives warnings for the plane's moving, halting, speeding, overspeeding, and danger imminence. An equipment with 5 holes giving 5 different sounds to indicate the above should be installed. On either side of the above, two 6 inches wide, 26 feet tall, Aaghaatha-naalas or pipes should be fixed. Between them two 5 inches thick metal rods are to be adjusted. At the foot, middle, and top of the naalas revolving

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wheel keelakas should be fitted. By their revolving, the rods will strike each other. That will increase the speed of the plane. On the top of the naala pipes, air bellows with  fittings should be fixed. Thereby the air force in the naalas will shoot up, and the speed of the vimaana will double. Then on the four sides of the heated smoke kosha or container, shundaalas or elephant-trunk-like pipes should be fixed with wheeled keys as in vaatodgama yantra. By filling the shundaalas with the smoke and turning the keys as required, the movement of the vimaana in one direction or another, its gaining height and speeding out or halting, will be facilitated. Keys should be adjusted so as to make the shundaalas coil down like a water hose or keep erect. Two pipes made of 3rd division copper should he wound round the agnikosa, water kosa, and smoke kosa, or fire, water and smoke koshas, in order to absorb the excessive heat in them.

In order to part the wind in front of the vimaana, vaata-vibhajana chakra keela or wind- dividing-wheel fittings should be fixed.

Having thus prepared the chaaturmukhoshmyaka yantra, or four-faced heating machine, it should be installed in the centre of the vimaana. By the air, smoke, and heat of the yantras below, the ascent and flight of the vimaana will be facilitated.

Regarding the speed of the vimaana, we have to consider the speed of smoke and other accessories mathematically, and conclude the possibility of the speed of the vimaana. The speed of the smoke from dhooma yantra is 2113 linkas. The speed of wind from the air blowing machine 2500 linkas. Wind from the naala-stambha blows at the speed of 600 linkas. This is the speed of the forces from the 3 machines on the peetha. Of the forces
from the upper portion of the vimaana, from the chatur-mukhoshmyaka yantra, heat force of 3400 linkas emanates. By the four-faced heat yantra, and by operating the keys of the shundaalas, and the force of the wind, smoke and heat machines, the vimaana would be capable of a speed of 400 yojanas or 3600 miles.

This is Sundara Vimaana, and it has been described after consulting ancient works, and according to my humble capacity, says Maharshi Bharadwaaja.