वैमानिक शास्त्र (Vimaan Shastra-Ancient Indian Aeroplane Technology Chapter-6.1)

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Atha Jaatyadhikaranam: Varieties of Vimaanas.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:
☞ Jaati tryvidhyam Yugabhedaad Vimaanaanaam. Sootra 1. "Three types according to changing Yugas."
Bodhaananda Vritti:

According to the differences in yugas, there are three different types of planes: Having dealt with the constituent mechanical parts of the Vimaana, we shall now deal
with the Vimaanas according to their different classes.
The sootra indicates that there are different types of planes, and that they are of 3 types. In the Krita Yuga, Dharma or Righteousness was four-footed, that is, it was four-square,
fully established, all paramount, and it was adhered to implicitly by men. The men were inherently noble-born and were possessed of remarkable powers. Without needing to go through yogic discipline to attain special powers, or practise mantras which secured extraordinary results, the men of that yuga, merely by their devotion to dharma, became Siddhapurushaas or gifted with superhuman powers. They were virtuous men and men of learning and wisdom. Going in the sky with the speed of wind by their own volition was natural to them. The eight super-sensory, and now superhuman, attainments, known as animaa, mahimaa, garimaa, laghimaa, praaptih, praakaamya, eeshatwa, and vashitwa, were all possessed by them. That is, animaa is assumption of infinitesimal shape; mahimaa is growing into gigantic shape; garimaa is becoming astonishingly heavy; laghimaa is becoming weightless; praaptih is securing any desired thing; praakaamyam is becoming rid of desires; eeshatwa is attaining paramountcy; and vashitwa is becoming extremely pliant.

1) Sata yuga--1728000 years.
2) Trethaa yuga--1296000 years.
3) Dwaapara yuga--864000 years.
4) Kaliyuga--432000 years.

Therefore in Krita Yuga, or first epoch, the ancients say, there were none of the three classes of Vimaanas.

Krita Yuga passed; and Tretaa Yuga commenced. Dharma then became limp of one foot. It served with 3 feet only, and grew gradually less efficient. So men's minds became dense, and the conception of Vedic truths, and anima and other super-sensory powers, became scarcer. Therefore, by the corrosion of Dharma or righteousness, men lost the power of flying in the sky with the speed of wind.

Perceiving this, God Mahadeva, desiring to confer the power of understanding the Vedas properly on the Dwijas, or brahmins, kshatriyas, and vysyas, graciously descended on earth in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, and through the instrumentality of Sanaka and other anointed sages, classified the Veda mantras, and then bestowing his benedictory glance on the worshipping Munis or ascetics, he blessed them with the gift of Vedic perception. And then to ensure that they were properly receptive, he embraced them and entered their hearts and illuminated their memories. The munis, overwhelmed by the Divine grace, aglow with horripilation, with voice choked with emotion, praised the Supreme with shata-rudreeya and other hymns, and manifested profound devotion.

Pleased with their receptiveness, divine Dakshinaamurthy, favouring them with a benign glance, and with smile on his face, said to them, "Till now you have been known as "Munis" or ascetics. Henceforth, having by my grace attained insight into the Vedas, you shall be known as "Rishis" or seers. You will cultivate the Vedic mantras, and practising celibacy, you will adore the divine Goddess of the Vedas, and winning her favour, and approaching the Great God Easwara by Yogic Samadhi, ascertain His mind, and by His and my grace, rising to the pinnacle of intellectual vision, become adepts in the meaning and purport of the Vedas; and confirming by them your own experiences and meditative introspection, you will create the Dharmashaastras or moral codes, Puranas and Itihaasas, and physical and material sciences, in conformity to the truths of the Vedas, for the benefit of mankind. And for travelling in the sky, propagate the art of manufacturing Vimaanas, and for attaining wind-speed, evolve Ghutica and Paadukaa methods through Kalpashaastras or scientific treatises."

Then those munis or seers, enshrining in their hearts God Mahadeva in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, produced the Dharmashaastras or ethical codes, epics, chronicles, manuals on rituals, treatises on the arts and sciences, ritualistic and sacrificial codes, in conformity to the Vedas, and propagated them among men. Amongst them it is said that there are six treatises bearing on the manufacture of Vimaanas produced by the ancient seers. In them are described three classes of vimaanas, known as maantrikaas, taantrikaas, and kritakaas, capable of flying everywhere.

It is said in Vimaana Chandrika,

"I shall indicate the different kinds of vimaanas. In Tretaa yuga as men were adepts in mantras or potent hymns, the vimaanas used to be produced by means of maantric knowledge. In Dwaapara yuga as men had developed considerable tantric knowledge, vimaanas were manufactured by means of tantric knowledge. As, both mantra and tantra are deficient in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are known as kritaka or artificial. Thus, owing to changes in dharma during the yugas, the ancient seers have classified the vimaanas of the

3 yugas as of 3 different types." "Vyomayaana Tantra" also says,
"By the influence of mantras in Tretaa, vimaanas are of maantrika type. Owing to the prevalence of tantras in Dwaapara, the vimaanas are of taantrika type. Owing to decadence of both mantra and tantra in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are of artificial type." Thus 3 classes of vimaanas are mentioned in shaastras by ancient seers.

In "Yantra Kalpa" also,

"Vimaanas are classified into mantra and other varieties by experts according to differences in yugas. They are defined as maantrika, taantrika, and kritaka."

The same is expressed in "Kheta yaana pradeepika," and also "Vyoma Yaana Arkaprakaashikaa."

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Thus according to shaastras vimaanas are divided into 3 classes, on the basis of differences in the modes of their manufacture.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:
☞ "Pancha-vimshan Maantrikaaha Pushpakaadi Prabhedena" Sootra 2. "Maantrika Vimaanas are of Pushpaka and other 25 Varieties."
Bodhaananda Vritti:

In the previous sootra vimaanas were specified as of 3 types owing to differences in the 3 yugas. In this sootra maantrika vimaanas or vimaanas flying by maantrik power are said to be 25.

Shounaka Sootra says,

Maantrika vimaanas in Tretaayuga are 25. Their names are pushpaka, ajamukha, bhraajasvat, jyotirmukha, kowshika, bheeshma, shesha, vajraanga, dyvata, ujvala, kolaahala, archisha, bhooshnu, somaanka, panchavarna, shanmukha, panchabaana, mayoora, shankara, tripura, vasuhaara, panchaanana, ambareesha, trinetra and bherunda.

In Maanibhadrakaarikaa,

The vimaanas of Tretaayuga are 32 of the maantrika type. Their names as given by Maharshi Gowtama are Pushpaka, ajamukha, bhraaja, swayamjyoti, kowshika, bheeshmaka, shesha, vajraanga, dyvata, ujvala, kolaahala, archisha, bhooshnu, somaanka, varnapanchaka, shanmukha, panchabaana, mayoora, shankara priya, tripura, vasuhaara, panchaanana, ambareesha, trinetra, and bherunda, etc.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:
☞ "Bhyravaadi Bhedaat Tantrikaa-shshat-panchaashat." Sootra 3.

"Taantrika Vimaanas are of Bhyrava and other 56 varieties." Bodhaananda Vritti:
In previous sootra the names of maantrika vimaanas were mentioned: In this sootra the names of taantrika vimaanas of Dwaapara yuga are mentioned.

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In shape, movement and speed there is no difference between maantrika and taantrika vimaanas. There is however one difference in taantrika vimaanas, that is, the way in which the shakti or power at the junction of sky and earth is incorporated.

Lalla also says,

There is only one difference between taantrika vimaanas and maantrika vimaanas: the adaptation of the power of sky and earth. In shape, and movement. variations, they are identical. The taantrika vimaanas are of 56 varieties.

In Shounaka Sootra,

In Dwaapara taantrika vimaanas are 56. Their names are, bhyrava, nandaka, vatuka, virinchi, vynateya, bherunda, makaradwaja, shringaataka, ambareesha, sheshaasya, saimtuka, maatrika, bhraaja, paingala, tittibha, pramatha, bhoorshni, champaka, drownika, rukmapunkha, bhraamani, kakubha, kaalabhyrava, jambuka, garudaasya, gajaasya, vasudeva, shoorasena, veerabaahu, bhusunda, gandaka, shukatunda, kumuda, krownchika, ajagara, panchadala, chumbuka, dundubhi, ambaraasya, maayooraka, bheerunalika, kaamapaala, gandarksha, paariyaatra, shakunta, ravimandana, vyaaghra, mukha, vishnuratha, sowarnika, mruda, dambholi, brihathkunja, mahaanata, etc.

In Maanibhadrakaarikaa:--

In Dwaapara yuga taantrika vimaanas are said to be 56. Their names according to sage Gowtama, are bhyrava, nandaka, vatuka, virinchika, tumbara, vynateya, bherunda, makaradhwaja, shringaataka, ambareesha, sheshaasya, symhika, maatruka, bhraajaka, pyngala, tittibha, pramatha, bhoorshnika, champaka, drownika, rukmapunkha, bhraamanika, kakubha, kaalabhyirava, jambuka, gireesha, garudaasya, gajaasya, vasudeva, shoorasena, veerabaahu, bhusundaka, gandaka, shukatunda, kumuda, krownchika, ajagara, panchadala, chumbaka, dundubhi, ambaraasya, mayoora, bheeru, nalikaa, kaamapaala, gandarksha, paariyaatra, shakuntaka, ravimandana, vyaaghramukha, vishnu ratha, souvarnika, mruda, dambholee, bruhatkunja, mahaanata.

These 56 are taantrika vimaanas of Dwaaparayuga.

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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:
☞ "Shakunaadyaah Panchavimshat Kritakaah." Sootra 4. "Shakuna and other 25 types of Vimaanas are Kritakaah."

Bodhaananda Vritti:

In shape and movements there is no difference in the vimaanas, except in the matter of the use of mantraas and tantraas. The kritaka or artificial vimaanas are of 25 varieties.

According to Shownaka sootra

"Tishyay kritaka bhedaah panchavigamshatih! teshaam naamaanyanukramishyaamah: shakuna sundararukma mandala vakratunda bhadraka ruchaka vyraaja bhaaskara gajaavarta powshkala virinchi nandaka kumuda mandara hamsa shukaasya somaka krownchaka padmaka symhika panchabaana owryaayana pushkara kodandaa iti."

Says "Maanibhadra Kaarikaa":

In Kaliyuga, the kritaka or artificial vimaanas are said to be 25. Their names are given below as indicated by sage Gowtama: shakuna, sundara, rukmaka, mandala, vakratunda, bhadraka, ruchaka, viraajaka, bhaaskara, gajaavarta, powshkala, viranchika, nandaka, kumuda, mandara, hamsa, shukaasya, sowmyaka, krownchaka, padmaka, symhika, panchabaana, owryaayana, pushkara, and kodanda.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja:
☞ "Raaja-lohaadeteshaam Aakaara Rachanaa." Sootra 5. "These should be built out of Raajaloha."
Bodhaananda Vritti:

These 25 kinds of vimaanas are to be made of Raajaloha metal only. Says Kriyaasaara,
In manufacturing artificial aeroplanes the best of metals are those known as Ooshmapaa or heat-imbibing or heat resisting metals. Out of them the variety known as Raajaloha or king of metals is most suited to Shakuna and other vimaanas.

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Three kinds of metals, soma, soundaala, and maardweeka, in the proportion of 3, 8, and 2, adding borax, to be filled in crucible or smelter, and placed in furnace, and heated to 272 degrees, and melted thoroughly, and churned, will result in the alloy Raajaloha.

Vishwambhara also says,

"In the science of metals, for the manufacture of aeroplanes, 16 types of Ooshmapaa or heat-sucking lohas or metals are the very best. The fourth in that series, is called Raajaloha. Out of that alone should shakuna vimaana be constructed."

The parts of shakuna vimaana are:

Peetha or floor board; hollow mast; three wheeled keelakas with holes; 4 heaters, air- suction pipes, water jacket, oil tank, air heater, chhullee or heater, steam boiler, vidyud-

yantra or electric generator, air propelling yantra, vaatapaa yantra or air-suction pipe, dikpradarsha dhwaja or direction indicating banner, shakuna yantra, two wings, tail portion for helping vimaana to rise, owshmyaka yantra or engine, kiranaakarshana math or sun-ray attracting bead. These 28 are parts of Shakuna vimaana.

The construction of the vimaana:

The floor-board or base should be made of levelled Rajaloha sheet, shaped quadrangular, circular, or cradle shaped. The weight of the peetha should be one-hundredth of that of the plane, and its width should be half the height of the vimaana. In the centre of the peetha the hollow mast should be fixed with screw joints.

Lalla defines the mast in "Yantra kalpataru". The stambha or mast should be made of haatakaasya metal and not otherwise.

Haatakaasya metal is described in "Lohatantra": 8 parts of suvarchala or natron, 16 parts of laghu-kshwinka or light zinc, 18 parts of lagbu bambhaari, and 100 parts of copper, filled in smelter, placed in koorma vyaasatika furnace, and with the aid of mahormi bellows boiled to 307 degrees, will yield haatakaasya metal.

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The Peetha

The height of the peetha should be 80 feet. It should be 56 feet in length and breadth, 70 feet high on the north and south sides. The tip should be three-cornered. This is for shakuna vimaana.

Naalastambha or Hollow Mast:

At the bottom the mast should be of 35 feet diameter outside, and 30 feet inside. At the middle the mast should be of 25 feet diameter outside and 20 feet inside. Higher up it should be of 20 feet diameter outside and 15 feet diameter inside; The height of the mast should be 80 feet. It should be made of Raajaloha. In order to fix the mast in the peetha screw joint should be made. And in order to adjust the air-speed as required, 6 wheels should be inserted inside the mast.

The Wheels:

Inside the mast at the height of 4 feet above the peetha, three wheels should be provided, of 15½ feet diameter, with holes. The wheels above and below should be fixed with bolts, and unmoving. In order to revolve the middle wheel keys should be fixed outside on the mast, As there are holes in the wheels, as two wheels do not move, and as the middle wheel revolves in a group with the other two wheels, movement of air is, allowed or stopped by the turning of the key outside.

Similarly at the height of 44 feet above the peetha three wheels corresponding to those below should be fixed and operated similarly.

Window dome:

The window dome should be of 15½ feet outside circumference. Its inside should be five feet wide and it should be 2 feet high. It should be fixed on the top of the mast.


A sun crystal 7 feet round, and 2 feet wide and 2 feet in height should be fixed so as to crown the window dome.

10 feet above the bottom peetha, on a floor-board 3 inches thick, three floors or tiers should be built, each 14 feet high, with 3 inch

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floor-boards, the upper two floors being supported by pillars fixed at 10 feet intervals with screw joints and strong bolts. In the four corners 4 heating yantras should be fixed, 10 feet in circumference and 8 feet high. On the ground floor along the supporting pillars accommodation for passengers should be provided in the form of individual boxes.

On the second floor booths should be constructed to accommodate the anga-yantras, or the various mechanisms recommended for the safety of the vimaana. It should be 60 feet wide and 14 feet high with 3 inch thick ceiling board.

The third floor should be 40 feet wide and 14 feet high.

The partitioning boxes for passengers as well as the booths of the various machines should be divided off by railings starting from the hollow mast to the side walls in all the four directions.

Beneath the ground-floor board a 7 feet high cellar should be constructed. In it the several necessary yantras should be located. In the centre is the foot of the hollow mast. On the four directions from it 4 air pumping machines should be fixed. In order to stimulate   them 4 steam engines also should be installed. On the two sides of the vimaana two air expelling machines, and an air heater machine, and 2 machines to keep the heater  supplied with air from outside, should be erected.

In order to enable the wings on either side to spread and flap, proper hinges and keys should be provided for, safely fixing them to the sides of the vimaana, and for enabling them to fold and open easily.

The revolving tractor blades in the front should be duly fixed to the heating engine with rods so that they could dispel the wind in front and facilitate the passage of the vimaana.

The wings are two, one on each side, very strongly fixed to the vimaana with bolts and hinges. Each wing should be fixed in a 11 foot scabbard up to 20 feet length, where it would be 10 feet wide, widening further up to 40 feet at the end of its 60 feet length, besides its. first 20 feet of scabbard length.

The tail should be 20 feet long, and 3½ feet wide at the start, and 20 feet wide at the end.

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The air-blower and heater:

The length of the air-blower should be 15 feet, and width 3 feet. The naalaas or pipes should be 3 feet wide, and their outer circumference should be 4 feet. The rods and hinges and other equipment should be suitably prepared.

The vaatapaa yantra or air blower should be 12 feet long and 9½ feet wide. Inside it should be covered with circling wires. A pipe should be fixed inside, for air flow. By the hot oil fumes from the heated tank, the air becomes heated and should be passed into the owshmya yantra or heater, while the cold air from outside should also be let in. Tubes and fixings should be provided in the yantra. In order to emit the fumes of the oil flames to the outside, a 6 inches pipe should be fixed from the yantra to the foot of the mast. Air blowers should be installed with 10 feet wheels to pump in fresh cold air from outside.

To the east of the air machine should be placed a light burner in order to aid combustion of the oil. An electric generator provided with switches should light the burner. When the light is off the oil should be kept duly sealed. A rope should be tied to the tail joint, for the pilot to manipulate the fluttering of the tail to help the ascent or descent of the vimaana. Similarly ropes should be tied to the hinges of the two wings, and passed to the pilot like reins, so that he might spread them out or close them as needed.

Ten feet beneath the passenger floor of the vimaana, to a height of 2½ feet from the bottom plate there should be a cellar-like enclosure. The bottom of the vaatanaala mast should be fixed in its centre with firm screw joints. In this cellar should be located two oil tanks 15 feet by 9½ feet by 4 feet, with water jackets.

Four bellows of 15 feet by 2½ feet by 6½ feet, should be provided for storing the air pumped in by the air-blowers, and letting it out as required.

And underneath, on all the four sides wheels of 7 feet circumference should be fixed for the movement of the vimaana on the ground.

This vimaana is named SHAKUNA VIMAANA.

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Maharshi Bharadwaaja:

Bodhaananda Vritti:


☞ "Sundarothha." Sootra 6. "Next Sundara."

Next Sundara vimaana will be described. It has got 8 constituent parts.

First peetha or ground plate, smoke chimney, 5 gas-engines, bhujya metal pipe, wind blower, electricity generator, and four-faced heater, and vimaana nirnaya, or outer cover.

The Peetha or ground plate:

It should be made of Raajaloha metal only. It should be square or round, and of 100 feet in circumference, or any other desired size. It should be 8 feet thick. Seven times the peetha has to be heated with manchuka or madder root oil. Then spots should be marked in it at 10 feet distance from each other, totalling 24. The size of each kendra or centre is 15 feet. In the centre a dhooma-prasaarana or fume distributing naala or pipe 12 feet high should be erected.

Naalastambha, hollow mast:

The naalastambha should be 56 feet high, and 4 feet in diametre. For storing gas, at its base, a 8 feet long, circular, and 4 feet high vessel should be provided. A six feet size water vessel should be arranged. A 4 feet size oil tank should be fixed at its centre. At its foot an electric storing crystal of 1 foot size should be fixed with necessary hinges and keys.

The vessel should be filled with 12 parts of dhoomanjana oil, and 20 parts of  shukatundika or bignonia Indica? (egg-plant?) oil, and 9 parts of kulakee or red-arsenic oil. To conduct electricity, two wires should be passed through the pipe and fixed to the crystal. In the middle of the naalastambha or mast, for the smoke fumes to be restrained  or speeded out, triple wheels with holes should be fixed. In order to work the wheels from outside, two right turning and left turning wheels

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should be attached outside the pole, and connected to the wheels inside. Three wires should be drawn inside the naala and fixed at the foot, the middle, and at the top.

Dhoomodgama Yantra:

Because it ejects smoke fumes with speed it is called Dhoomodgama yantra.

Hima samvardhaka, soma, and sundaala, in the proportion of 32, 25, and 38, should be filled in pipe crucible, placed in chakra-mukha furnace, and with the help of ajaamukha bellows heated to 712 degrees and properly churned. It will yield excellent dhooma- garbha alloy. With that alloy the dhoomodgama yantra should be constructed.

Underneath the centre of the 15 feet long peetha, for the control of the gas fumes a 10  feet high pipe with right revolving wheel should be fixed. On its 2 sides, to south and north, 2 water steam pipes should be erected. At the foot of the 2 pipes 4 feet long 3 feet high pots should be formed for containing the fumes. Two pipes shaped like goblets, 1 foot by 8 feet by 3 feet, should be fixed at the top of the fume container. A water vessel at its foot, and an oil-vessel at its centre, and in front of it the switches of the electric ray crystals, as in the dhooma prasaarana naala stambha.

On either side of the heat tube, two water jackets should be placed. A pipe with wires should be taken from the electric generator and connected to the hinges of the crystals. Electric current of 80 linkas should be passed to the crystals, whose motion will cause friction and generate heat of 100 degrees (kakshyas). Thereby the oil in the vessel will get

heated and boil and emit fumes.

The electric power should then be passed through the smoke pipe between the two water jackets. By this the water will be converted into hot steam. The oil fumes should be filled in the oil fume pipe and the steam in the steam pipe. Then by operating the switches, both the fumes will fly up at 500 degree temperature. The switches should restrain the fumes  or pump them out as needed. 40 such yantras should be prepared and should be fixed on the peetha in groups on

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the four sides. Then connected with the bases of the dhooma-naalas, sundaalas or elephant trunks, one foot wide and 12 feet high should be erected on the four sides, to enable the vimaana to fly with speed.